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核心提示:在扬州乃至中国的雕版历史上,江北刻经处都是很有名的,如今大明寺恢复江北刻经处,就是对当年主要刊刻佛经的江北刻经处的一种传承。

马大师正在自己制作《江北刻经处》的牌子

马大师正在刻字

马大师雕刻的经书


在扬州大明寺内,藏经楼前的一处小庭院中,一处名为“江北刻经处”的场所使大明寺内出现“前有刻经处,后有藏经楼”的景象,而这也让大明寺成为全国唯一现设刻经处的寺庙。

刻什么经?各种经书、佛像都会刊刻

站在这所小庭院中,隔墙就能看到巍峨的藏经楼“江北刻经处”曾经在雕版史上赫赫有名,影响并不逊于金陵刻经处。

“在扬州乃至中国的雕版历史上,江北刻经处都是很有名的,大明寺恢复江北刻经处,就是对当年主要刊刻佛经的江北刻经处的一种传承。”扬州大明寺方丈能修介绍。

能修大和尚介绍,随着以扬州广陵古籍刻印社为主体申报的雕版印刷成为世界“非遗”后,各地的雕版印刷行业也是发展迅速,然而专门为寺庙刻经的,国内现存南京金陵刻经处、四川德格印经院两处,而这两处均没有设在寺庙之内。大明寺设立江北刻经处之后,就成为了全国唯一现设刻经处的寺庙。

江北刻经处,刻的是什么经书?能修大和尚说,藏经楼里的很多经书,都可以在江北刻经处进行雕版刊刻,这些经书不但本身会成为经典,就连那些版片本身,也是极为珍贵的。除了经书,还有很多佛像,也是刊刻的内容。将来雕版印刷出来的经书,可以放入藏经楼珍藏,也可以进入市场进行流通。

谁来刻经?一位雕版艺术的副教授

在江北刻经处内,已经陈设有多块新刻佛教内容的版片。有佛教的莲花座图案、有《瑜珈师地论》等经书,特别是一块用金丝楠木刻成的《心经》,通体散发着幽香。这些全都出自一人之手——鉴真学院雕版艺术副教授马延圣。

马延圣回忆说,早在十几年前,自己就对雕版印刷很感兴趣,自从中国雕版印刷博物馆落户扬州之后,更是经常在里面观摩,从学着看,到试着练。

马延圣几乎跑遍了国内所有生产雕版印刷产品的地方,北京荣宝斋、天津杨柳青、河南朱仙镇、苏州桃花坞、杭州十竹斋等地,每到一地,都会学习当地雕版印刷产品的优点,和扬州本地的雕版印刷进行比较。还先后到中央美院、清华美院等地,观摩大学课堂中的雕版印刷。

一开始,马延圣用于雕版印刷的工具,都是自制的。随着四处拜访名师,雕版印刷技艺也逐渐成熟起来。“其实,很多老艺人都是很愿意传授的,你只要愿意去学,他们都会教。”在扬州,马延圣就时常向雕版大师陈义时请教。练习时,经常练到深更半夜,第二天双手都拿不起筷子。“有位大师说,我是他的弟子当中岁数最大的,学艺时已经30多岁,却是最刻苦的。”如今,马延圣雕刻的版片,已经很具水准。

未来怎样?全国雕版经书交流的平台

“原来的江北刻经处有很多珍贵的老版片,在金陵刻经处保存,如果能有机缘,能够让这些版片重新回到扬州,那将是一件很有意义的事情。”马延圣说,“重振当年的影响,才有资格去追回当年的版片。”

对此,能修大和尚也说,自己曾在省政协会议上提交提案,想让当年版片回到扬州。“以前没有相关的载体,现在恢复江北刻经处,就会名正言顺了。”

对马延圣来说,面临的还有一个问题,就是如何让江北刻经处的规模变大。一个人的力量总是有限的。以马延圣现在的速度,一天最多能刻100多字,一部经书,起码也要刻上一年多的时间。“还是希望传承下去。有人也向我表达过学雕版的意愿,开头都会问两个问题,多久能学会?能赚多少钱?我只能很抱歉,想要速成或致富,走雕版印刷这条路,都是不大可能的。我只能希望,有更多真正热爱这项技艺的人,能够投身其中。”

【新闻链接】

历史上的“江北刻经处”

现处南京的金陵刻经处,是清代扬州人妙空法师创办的。妙空法师痛惜明代创刻的佛家典籍“南藏”的许多经版被太平天国焚毁,发下宏愿重刻,并自号刻经僧。同治七年,创办“金陵刻经处”于南京北极阁。随后不久,又在扬州江都砖桥创办“江北刻经处”,和金陵刻经处分工合作。此后,妙空法师又在苏州、常熟、浙江、如皋等五处设立刻经处,并以“江北刻经处”为首,总揽一切事项。

妙空圆寂后,由清梵法师鼎力相助,主持刻完600卷的大经《大般若经》,接着又续刻了诸大部经书。此后,江北刻经处也迎来了空前的鼎盛期,但是在日寇侵华期间,江北刻经处遭受焚毁,众多珍贵版片,也在战争中被付之一炬。新中国成立后,劫后重生的江北刻经处的版片也被运往金陵刻经处,占金陵刻经处目前所藏经版的五分之一左右。

如今的“江北刻经处”内陈设有数十本印有江北刻经处字样的经书。大部分都是由金陵刻经处出品。

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